# SFC <script setup>

<script setup> is a compile-time syntactic sugar for using Composition API inside Single File Components (SFCs). It is the recommended syntax if you are using both SFCs and Composition API. It provides a number of advantages over the normal <script> syntax:

  • More succinct code with less boilerplate
  • Ability to declare props and emitted events using pure TypeScript
  • Better runtime performance (the template is compiled into a render function in the same scope, without an intermediate proxy)
  • Better IDE type-inference performance (less work for the language server to extract types from code)

# Basic Syntax

To opt-in to the syntax, add the setup attribute to the <script> block:

<script setup>
console.log('hello script setup')
</script>
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The code inside is compiled as the content of the component's setup() function. This means that unlike normal <script>, which only executes once when the component is first imported, code inside <script setup> will execute every time an instance of the component is created.

# Top-level bindings are exposed to template

When using <script setup>, any top-level bindings (including variables, function declarations, and imports) declared inside <script setup> are directly usable in the template:

<script setup>
// variable
const msg = 'Hello!'

// functions
function log() {
  console.log(msg)
}
</script>

<template>
  <div @click="log">{{ msg }}</div>
</template>
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Imports are exposed in the same fashion. This means you can directly use an imported helper function in template expressions without having to expose it via the methods option:

<script setup>
import { capitalize } from './helpers'
</script>

<template>
  <div>{{ capitalize('hello') }}</div>
</template>
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# Reactivity

Reactive state needs to be explicitly created using Reactivity APIs. Similar to values returned from a setup() function, refs are automatically unwrapped when referenced in templates:

<script setup>
import { ref } from 'vue'

const count = ref(0)
</script>

<template>
  <button @click="count++">{{ count }}</button>
</template>
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# Using Components

Values in the scope of <script setup> can also be used directly as custom component tag names:

<script setup>
import MyComponent from './MyComponent.vue'
</script>

<template>
  <MyComponent />
</template>
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Think of MyComponent as being referenced as a variable. If you have used JSX, the mental model is similar here. The kebab-case equivalent <my-component> also works in the template - however PascalCase component tags are strongly recommended for consistency. It also helps differentiating from native custom elements.

# Dynamic Components

Since components are referenced as variables instead of registered under string keys, you should use dynamic :is binding when using dynamic components inside <script setup>:

<script setup>
import Foo from './Foo.vue'
import Bar from './Bar.vue'
</script>

<template>
  <component :is="Foo" />
  <component :is="someCondition ? Foo : Bar" />
</template>
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Note how the components can be used as variables in a ternary expression.

# Recursive Components

An SFC can implicitly refer to itself via its filename. E.g. a file named FooBar.vue can refer to itself as <FooBar/> in its template.

Note this has lower priority than imported components. If you have a named import that conflicts with the component's inferred name, you can alias the import:

import { FooBar as FooBarChild } from './components'
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# Namespaced Components

You can use component tags with dots like <Foo.Bar> to refer to components nested under object properties. This is useful when you import multiple components from a single file:

<script setup>
import * as Form from './form-components'
</script>

<template>
  <Form.Input>
    <Form.Label>label</Form.Label>
  </Form.Input>
</template>
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# defineProps and defineEmits

To declare props and emits in <script setup>, you must use the defineProps and defineEmits APIs, which provide full type inference support and are automatically available inside <script setup>:

<script setup>
const props = defineProps({
  foo: String
})

const emit = defineEmits(['change', 'delete'])
// setup code
</script>
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  • defineProps and defineEmits are compiler macros only usable inside <script setup>. They do not need to be imported, and are compiled away when <script setup> is processed.

  • defineProps accepts the same value as the props option, while defineEmits accepts the same value as the emits option.

  • defineProps and defineEmits provide proper type inference based on the options passed.

  • The options passed to defineProps and defineEmits will be hoisted out of setup into module scope. Therefore, the options cannot reference local variables declared in setup scope. Doing so will result in a compile error. However, it can reference imported bindings since they are in the module scope as well.

If you are using TypeScript, it is also possible to declare props and emits using pure type annotations.

# defineExpose

Components using <script setup> are closed by default - i.e. the public instance of the component, which is retrieved via template refs or $parent chains, will not expose any of the bindings declared inside <script setup>.

To explicitly expose properties in a <script setup> component, use the defineExpose compiler macro:

<script setup>
import { ref } from 'vue'

const a = 1
const b = ref(2)

defineExpose({
  a,
  b
})
</script>
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When a parent gets an instance of this component via template refs, the retrieved instance will be of the shape { a: number, b: number } (refs are automatically unwrapped just like on normal instances).

# useSlots and useAttrs

Usage of slots and attrs inside <script setup> should be relatively rare, since you can access them directly as $slots and $attrs in the template. In the rare case where you do need them, use the useSlots and useAttrs helpers respectively:

<script setup>
import { useSlots, useAttrs } from 'vue'

const slots = useSlots()
const attrs = useAttrs()
</script>
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useSlots and useAttrs are actual runtime functions that return the equivalent of setupContext.slots and setupContext.attrs. They can be used in normal composition API functions as well.

# Usage alongside normal <script>

<script setup> can be used alongside normal <script>. A normal <script> may be needed in cases where you need to:

  • Declare options that cannot be expressed in <script setup>, for example inheritAttrs or custom options enabled via plugins.
  • Declaring named exports.
  • Run side effects or create objects that should only execute once.
<script>
// normal <script>, executed in module scope (only once)
runSideEffectOnce()

// declare additional options
export default {
  inheritAttrs: false,
  customOptions: {}
}
</script>

<script setup>
// executed in setup() scope (for each instance)
</script>
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# Top-level await

Top-level await can be used inside <script setup>. The resulting code will be compiled as async setup():

<script setup>
const post = await fetch(`/api/post/1`).then(r => r.json())
</script>
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In addition, the awaited expression will be automatically compiled in a format that preserves the current component instance context after the await.

Note

async setup() must be used in combination with Suspense, which is currently still an experimental feature. We plan to finalize and document it in a future release - but if you are curious now, you can refer to its tests (opens new window) to see how it works.

# TypeScript-only Features

# Type-only props/emit declarations

Props and emits can also be declared using pure-type syntax by passing a literal type argument to defineProps or defineEmits:

const props = defineProps<{
  foo: string
  bar?: number
}>()

const emit = defineEmits<{
  (e: 'change', id: number): void
  (e: 'update', value: string): void
}>()
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  • defineProps or defineEmits can only use either runtime declaration OR type declaration. Using both at the same time will result in a compile error.

  • When using type declaration, the equivalent runtime declaration is automatically generated from static analysis to remove the need for double declaration and still ensure correct runtime behavior.

    • In dev mode, the compiler will try to infer corresponding runtime validation from the types. For example here foo: String is inferred from the foo: string type. If the type is a reference to an imported type, the inferred result will be foo: null (equal to any type) since the compiler does not have information of external files.

    • In prod mode, the compiler will generate the array format declaration to reduce bundle size (the props here will be compiled into ['foo', 'bar'])

    • The emitted code is still TypeScript with valid typing, which can be further processed by other tools.

  • As of now, the type declaration argument must be one of the following to ensure correct static analysis:

    • A type literal
    • A reference to an interface or a type literal in the same file

    Currently complex types and type imports from other files are not supported. It is theoretically possible to support type imports in the future.

# Default props values when using type declaration

One drawback of the type-only defineProps declaration is that it doesn't have a way to provide default values for the props. To resolve this problem, a withDefaults compiler macro is also provided:

interface Props {
  msg?: string
  labels?: string[]
}

const props = withDefaults(defineProps<Props>(), {
  msg: 'hello',
  labels: () => ['one', 'two']
})
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This will be compiled to equivalent runtime props default options. In addition, the withDefaults helper provides type checks for the default values, and ensures the returned props type has the optional flags removed for properties that do have default values declared.

# Restriction: No Src Imports

Due to the difference in module execution semantics, code inside <script setup> relies on the context of an SFC. When moved into external .js or .ts files, it may lead to confusion for both developers and tools. Therefore, <script setup> cannot be used with the src attribute.